Are there references in Talmud that indicate a first century Jewish belief that the general
resurrection that would occur 3 days after the end of the world? Some scholars have indicated that this first century belief is reflected in the Talmud and helped form the Christian resurrection myth of Jesus after 3 days.
This brings us to the question of today - does the Talmud talk about a resurrection 3 days after the end of the world?
Let me begin by citing passages that appear to be the relevant to the general issue of the ensoulment of a body, death, and what follows (the specific sources are cited in parenthesis):
Accompanied by divine messengers and conscious of its origins, the soul enters the womb at the time of conception (Babylonian Talmud Berakhot 60b). When people sleep, the soul ascends to heaven, returning renewed in the morning (Genesis Rabbah 14:9). Although the soul protests its birth into the world, it also protests the body's death. It lingers near the body for three days, hoping that it will return to life (Tanhuma, Miqetz 4; Pequdei 3). After three days, the soul returns to God to await the time of resurrection (Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 90b-91a). During the first twelve months after death, the soul remains in contact with the disintegrating body (Babylonian Talmud Shabbat 152b-153a). After this, the souls of the righteous go to paradise ( gan eden, the Garden of Eden) and the souls of the wicked, to purgatory ( gehinnom ). Yet, even there, the soul has a chance to be purified, with the exception of those guilty of heinous crime.
I have highlighted what NT believers and Messianic Jews probably wish to invoke in order to "prove" the resurrection of Jesus on 3 days. In other words, of all people, he was the only one whose soul lingered by his body for three days and was returned to life.
There are several problems with this theory (or belief):
1. Even if someone is resurrected, that does not necessarily qualify them for being the Messiah. The prophet Elisha did this twice, and Jesus is alleged to having resurrected Lazarus himself. Does that qualify [Rav Parry] Elisha's "resurrectees" or Lazarus as the Messiah?
2. The four Gospels, Matthew, Mark, Luke and John give their own account of the resurrection with major discrepancies.
3. Alone from not portraying the Messiah as a human sacrifice, who would die and be resurrected, Jewish scriptures never spoke about a "second coming." According to Jewish tradition, the Messiah will come once and complete all the tasks in one shot .
I hope this sheds some light on the issue.