Timeline of Significant Events and People
The following time line is provided a perspective on the events affecting Christianity and Judaism. A general idea of the “whom, when and where” of the development of Christianity – affords us a greater understanding of world events and how the movement evolved. We have provided only the most central figures of Christianity, and of Judaism for this time period. It should be noted that this is not an exhaustive list.
Julius Ceasar assassinated
41 Marc Antony names Herod the Great king of Judea
29 Octavian, nephew of Julius Caesar conferred the title of Augustus by the Senate
Schools of Hillel and Shammai founded
19 Herod begins to rebuild the Temple
Jesus and John the Baptist born. Herod dies
5 John the Apostle born?
10 Hillel (founder of the Pharisee School of Hillel) dies; succeeded by his son Shimon.
Augustus dies; Tiberius succeeds him as emperor.
Pontius Pilate becomes Procurator of Judea.
John the Baptist and Jesus begin their ministries
29 John the Baptist beheaded by Herod.
30 Jesus crucified.
70 Destruction of Second Temple in Jerusalem
132-135 Bar Kochba proclaimed Messiah by Jewish leaders and revolt forms against Roman rule. Last vestiges of Jewish self-rule eliminated by the Romans as the rebellion is crushed
325 Council of Nicea meets to codify Christian doctrines in response to growing heresies–Jewish bishops are specifically excluded from the meeting. Doctrine of the Trinity formally acknowledged
333 Christian Jews ordered by Constantine to abandon all ties to Judaism or be killed
337 Christianity becomes the official state religion of Rome. Constantine finally receives baptism as a Christian
425 The Jewish Sanhedrin in Tiberius abolished for good by the Romans, acting under Catholic pressure.
613 Jews refusing Christian baptism are ordered out of Spain
Mohammad begins the Koran
638 Jerusalem captured by Moslems
787 Second Council of Nicea approves of statues in churches, and their veneration
1095 The first of eventually seven crusades begin in the Holy Land at the behest of Pope Urban II
1263 Rabbi Moshe Ben Nachmon wins a theological debate in Barcelona over Catholic scholars and is driven out of Spain. Jews thereafter, while forced into theological debates, are restricted in the way they may present arguments
1290 The Jews are expelled from England by Edward “Longshanks” (the evil king in Braveheart)
1456 Guttenberg Bible printed
1478 Spanish Inquisition begun by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, resulting in the deaths of tens of thousands, including Jews
1492 The Jews are expelled from Spain
1562 Pope Gregory introduces his famed calendar, changing the New Year from April 1 to January 1
1604 King James of England (actually a Scot) commissions his namesake Bible to be printed
1609 The Baptist church founded in opposition to infant baptism
1611 First appearance of the King James Bible
1633 Galileo is forced to renounce his teachings
1655 Cromwell permits the Jews to return to England
1670 Jews banished from Austria
1827 Joseph Smith founds the Mormon Church
1948 Israel formed as a nation